Motors convert electrical energy into movement that can be used to make things, move things, cool things and much more. They are a large energy user and the greatest potential efficiency improvements lie in the way in which motors are driven.
There are many approaches for controlling motors. Field Oriented Control (FOC), sometimes known as Vector Control, is a mathematical approach that overcomes the poor low-speed accuracy of trapezoidal control while addressing the high-speed inefficiency of sinusoidal control. As a sensorless technique, the space, weight and energy consumed by a rotary encoder are saved with an FOC approach.