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General-Purpose Linear ICs

Power Supply ICs

  • What kinds of local power supply ICs exist?

    Power supply ICs are used for converting DC voltage (5 V to 3 V) or converting AC voltage to DC voltage. There are linear type and switching type to convert DC voltage. AC/DC converters are used for converting  AC voltage to DC voltage.

  • In what parts are power supply ICs used?

    ICs and LSIs, which operate at different voltages, are used in electronic equipment, such as cellular phones and PCs, for power saving and various load functions. Therefore, power supply ICs capable of supplying various voltages are used.

  • How are local power supply ICs used?

    There are growing needs for higher-accuracy and lower-noise power supply ICs in line with the trend toward lower voltage and higher functionality of LSIs. On the other hand, voltage drop and crosstalk due to long wiring on a board are becoming issues.

  • What kinds of linear-type local power supply ICs (linear regulators) exist?

    There are series regulators (LDO, 3-terminal regulators, etc.) and shunt regulators. They can generate local power supply with smaller external parts count, low noise and high precision. But loss is large (poor efficiency). And only buck type is possible. Shunt regulators offer extremely poor efficiency, and thus they have tended not to be used in recent years.

  • What kinds of switching-type local power supply ICs (switching regulators) exist?

    They are often called DC/DC converters. Both buck and boost types are possible, but circuit structures are different. Loss is small (high efficiency), but external parts, such as a coil, are required. Circuit scale is large and they are expensive. Voltage precision is poor. Because they generate intended DC voltage by switching DC voltage (under 1 MHz) and smoothing it, switching noise is superposed and output noise tends to become large.

  • Do linear-type local power supply ICs (linear regulators) need external parts?

    External parts are not needed as shown in the figure below. (Input and output capacitors are needed.) Output voltage becomes constant by operating a MOSFET as a variable resistor so that VOUT is constant.

  • How does a buck converter work?

    The figure below shows the operating image. Rectangular wave voltage is applied to a coil by a MOSFET repeating ON and OFF. Specified DC voltage is obtained by smoothing this rectangular voltage. Output voltage is decided by duty ratio of rectangular wave.

  • How does a boost converter work?

    As the figure below shows, when the MOSFET is ON, current mainly flows through the coil and the MOSFET. Energy is accumulated in the coil during this time. The coil emits accumulated energy and suppresses changes of current. Current does not flow at the moment when the MOSFET turns OFF, but owing to the characteristic of this coil, current flows through a diode, and the capacitor is charged. Because of this phenomenon, output voltage exceeds input voltage.

  • About absolute maximum ratings (Understanding datasheet values)

    As an example, an "Electrical Characteristics" table for the TCR2EF and TCR2EE Series is shown below.


    Definitions of the Terms in the Table
    1. Input voltage (VIN) :
       Absolute maximum voltage that can be applied between the input and GND
    2. Control voltage (VCT) :
       Voltage range over which an IC can be turned on and off
    3. Output voltage (VOUT) :
       Output voltage range that an IC can tolerate
    4. Output current (IOUT) :
      Maximum output current (load current) that can flow thru an IC
    5. Power dissipation (PD) :
      IMaximum power that the IC can dissipate. The PD value of a surface-mount device varies with pc board materials and land pad dimensions. The power dissipation (PD) of a low-dropout (LDO) voltage regulator can be calculated as follows:
      PD = VIN × IB +(VIN - VOUT)× IOUT
      where VIN is input voltage, VOUT is output voltage, IB is bias current and IOUT is output current.
    6. Operational temperature range (Topr) :
      The allowable ambient temperature range when the device is operating under a specified condition
    7. Junction temperature (Tj):
      Maximum junction temperature that the IC can tolerate
    8. Storage temperature (Tstg):
      Ambient temperature range in which the IC can be stored with no voltage applied

  • About electrical characteristics (Understanding datasheet values)

    As an example, an "Electrical Characteristics" table for the TCR2EF and TCR2EE Series is shown below.

    Definitions of the Terms in the Table
    1. Output voltage (VOUT):
      This is the most important and key characteristic of a power supply IC. VOUT defines the accuracy of output voltage regulation under the specified test conditions.
      As shown in the table, it differs depending on the output voltage range.
      ICs with an output voltage of 1.8 V or higher are regulated with an accuracy of ±1.0%, while those with an output voltage of less than 1.8 V are regulated with an accuracy of ±18 mV.
    2. Input voltage(VIN):
      Range of input voltage that can be applied to a power supply IC. The minimum input voltage, if specified, indicates the input voltage that is required at the minimum to deliver the specified typical output current (IOUT), unless otherwise noted.
    3. Line regulation (Reg・line):
      Output voltage changes over the specified input voltage range, with the output current and the junction temperature kept constant (Tj=25°C).
      This rating does not include any output voltage change caused by input voltage transients.
    4. Load regulation (Reg・load):
      Output voltage changes over the specified output current range, with the input voltage and the junction temperature kept constant (Tj=25°C).
      This rating does not include any output voltage change caused by output current transients.
    5. Bias current (IB):
      Current consumed by the power supply IC when it is operating
    6. Standby current (IB(OFF)) :
      Current consumed by the power supply IC when it is idle
    7. Input-output voltage differential (VIN-VOUT)
      Differential between the minimum input operating voltage and the output voltage required for the IC to keep the output voltage in regulation.
      Also called dropout voltage.
    8. Average temperature coefficient of output voltage (TCVO):
      Change in the output voltage per degree centigrade under the specified test conditions. TCVO of 100 ppm/°C (typ.) means that a 1°C increase in temperature causes the output voltage to increase by 0.1 mV. It should be noted, however, that all devices do not exhibit the same TCVO value; it should be considered only as a guide.
    9. Output noise voltag (VNO):
      RMS value of the noise voltage that occurs at the output when the IC is operating
    10. Ripple rejection (R.R.) :
      The ratio of the ripple amplitude (i.e., a small alternating-current component) in the IC input voltage to that in the output voltage after being rejected by the circuit
      R.R. (dB) = 20 log (ΔVIN/ΔVOUT)
    11. Load transient response (ΔVOUT) :
      Change in the regulated output voltage that occurs as a result of a change in load current when the input voltage is stable enough for output voltage regulation
    12. Control voltage (ON) (VCT (ON) ):
      Voltage required to turn on the IC
    13. Control voltage (VCT (OFF) ) :
      Voltage required to turn off the IC

Motor Drivers

Brushed Motor

  • How can I calculate current and power consumption?

    Broadly speaking, the power consumption of a motor driver consists of two factors: the power consumed due to the IC bias current and the power consumed due to current flowing through the output section. Both these factors are affected by the drive voltage and the duty cycle.
    For details of how to calculate the power consumption of a motor driver, see the appropriate datasheet or contact us.

  • What are the differences between the absolute maximum ratings and the recommended operating conditions?

    Absolute maximum ratings are limiting values that should not be exceeded even instantaneously. Exposure to conditions beyond these ratings may affect the lifetime and reliability of a device.
    The recommended operating conditions define the conditions for actual device operation and should be observed to ensure that a device operates properly. Correct operation is not guaranteed if any of the recommended operating conditions is exceeded. If there is a possibility that a device will be subjected to a condition beyond any of them, you should review your system design or select another device.

  • Please explain permissible power dissipation.

    The permissible power dissipation of an unmounted IC is rated without any heat sink or any heat dissipation path through a printed circuit board. Without heat dissipation, an application of a large electric current causes an IC to heat up, leading to thermal shutdown (TSD) of the IC. If the IC is left in this condition, its temperature exceeds the absolute maximum temperature, increasing the likelihood that it will be permanently damaged.
    Therefore, consult application notes for each device and create a thermal design that allows sufficient temperature margin so that the junction temperature will not exceed 150°C. In addition, keep in mind that an increase in ambient temperature reduces the permissible power dissipation.

  • What is the definition of “allowable power dissipation”?

    The allowable power dissipation is the maximum power dissipation permitted at up to the rated maximum junction temperature (Tj) of 150℃ when the ambient temperature, Ta, is 25℃. User should calcurate the derated allowable power dissipation because it should be decreased for higher ambient temperature.

  • Is it OK to connect capacitors to the output lines?

    There is a limitation to the maximum capacitance values at the output lines, which varies with conditions and differs from device to device. Contact us and allow for design margins.

  • Are decoupling capacitors required across power and ground lines?

    Decoupling capacitors are required in order to stabilize IC operation by reducing the impedance of power lines and to absorb back-EMF from the motor coil when it is de-energized.

  • Is it OK to make deliberate use of the equivalent diode structure between the drain (D) and the source (S)?

    Typically, the DMOS output section has an equivalent parasitic diode structure. Read the handling precautions.

  • MOS devices are typically sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD). How should I protect MOSFETs against ESD?

    Proper ESD protection is implemented in each device.

  • What would happen if static electricity were discharged to the motor driver logic? Isn’t any protection implemented on-chip?

    If static electricity is introduced into a motor driver from a charged object, the on-chip general-purpose CMOS logic may be permanently damaged. Because the gate oxide layer at input gates is only several tens to several hundred angstroms thick, it may be punctured by an electrostatic discharge (ESD) of several hundred to several thousand volts. To protect input gates from ESD, Toshiba's motor drivers have protection circuitry at logic input pins. However, ESD should never be discharged directly into a device; even with protection circuitry, the device might be degraded or damaged.

  • How many parts are supplied per tape-and-reel?

    The quantity of devices per reel is 1000, 2000 or other. It differs from device to device. Ask your local Toshiba sales representative.

  • Tell me about the recommended land pattern.

    See the application notes for each device. You can also search for application notes from the Package & Packing Information page.

  • How can I purchase samples and evaluation boards?

    Please contact a distributor or Toshiba’s sales representative.
    You can purchase some of Toshiba’s devices online from Digi Key:
    Digi Key Website
    Evaluation boards are also available from Marutsu:
    Marutsu Website (Japanese)

Brushless Motor

  • How can I calculate current and power consumption?

    Broadly speaking, the power consumption of a motor driver consists of two factors: the power consumed due to the IC bias current and the power consumed due to current flowing through the output section. Both these factors are affected by the drive voltage and the duty cycle.
    For details of how to calculate the power consumption of a motor driver, see the appropriate datasheet or contact us.

  • What are the differences between the absolute maximum ratings and the recommended operating conditions?

    Absolute maximum ratings are limiting values that should not be exceeded even instantaneously. Exposure to conditions beyond these ratings may affect the lifetime and reliability of a device.
    The recommended operating conditions define the conditions for actual device operation and should be observed to ensure that a device operates properly. Correct operation is not guaranteed if any of the recommended operating conditions is exceeded. If there is a possibility that a device will be subjected to a condition beyond any of them, you should review your system design or select another device.

  • Please explain permissible power dissipation.

    The permissible power dissipation of an unmounted IC is rated without any heat sink or any heat dissipation path through a printed circuit board. Without heat dissipation, an application of a large electric current causes an IC to heat up, leading to thermal shutdown (TSD) of the IC. If the IC is left in this condition, its temperature exceeds the absolute maximum temperature, increasing the likelihood that it will be permanently damaged.
    Therefore, consult application notes for each device and create a thermal design that allows sufficient temperature margin so that the junction temperature will not exceed 150°C. In addition, keep in mind that an increase in ambient temperature reduces the permissible power dissipation.

  • What is the definition of “allowable power dissipation”?

    The allowable power dissipation is the maximum power dissipation permitted at up to the rated maximum junction temperature (Tj) of 150℃ when the ambient temperature, Ta, is 25℃. User should calcurate the derated allowable power dissipation because it should be decreased for higher ambient temperature.

  • Is it OK to connect capacitors to the output lines?

    There is a limitation to the maximum capacitance values at the output lines, which varies with conditions and differs from device to device. Contact us and allow for design margins.

  • Are decoupling capacitors required across power and ground lines?

    Decoupling capacitors are required in order to stabilize IC operation by reducing the impedance of power lines and to absorb back-EMF from the motor coil when it is de-energized.

  • Is it OK to make deliberate use of the equivalent diode structure between the drain (D) and the source (S)?

    Typically, the DMOS output section has an equivalent parasitic diode structure. Read the handling precautions.

  • MOS devices are typically sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD). How should I protect MOSFETs against ESD?

    Proper ESD protection is implemented in each device.

  • What would happen if static electricity were discharged to the motor driver logic? Isn’t any protection implemented on-chip?

    If static electricity is introduced into a motor driver from a charged object, the on-chip general-purpose CMOS logic may be permanently damaged. Because the gate oxide layer at input gates is only several tens to several hundred angstroms thick, it may be punctured by an electrostatic discharge (ESD) of several hundred to several thousand volts. To protect input gates from ESD, Toshiba's motor drivers have protection circuitry at logic input pins. However, ESD should never be discharged directly into a device; even with protection circuitry, the device might be degraded or damaged.

  • Is there anything to keep in mind when using a sensorless DC motor?

    Instead of detecting the rotor position using sensors (Hall elements or a Hall IC), a sensorless motor drive system monitors changes in the motor back-EMF voltage to predict the timing of current conduction. However, applications in which the motor RPM fluctuates considerably because of load variations make it difficult to predict this timing accurately, causing the motor to fall out of step. (The motor stops rotating.)
    If the back-EMF voltage is insufficient, it is difficult to realize stable sensorless drive. When the back-EMF voltage is low at low RPM, motor operation tends to become unstable.

  • What are the benefits of lead angle control?

    Generally, lead angle control is used to improve the efficiency of a brushless DC motor. Since DC motors have no saliency (Ld=Lq), they exhibit the maximum efficiency when the back-EMF phase matches the motor current phase. In reality, however, the motor current lags behind the commutation voltage, reducing motor efficiency. Lead angle control reduces the difference in phase between the back-EMF voltage and the motor current.

  • What causes motor failure and sine-wave distortion?

    The motor may not work properly because of a noise on the Hall input. Add an RC filter to the Hall input for noise cancellation.

  • What is the maximum RPM supported by sine-wave driver ICs?

    The maximum RPM is determined by the motor and its input voltage. Considering the effective range of sine-wave PWM drive, roughly 1/100th of the PWM frequency is considered to be the limit of RPM.
    For example, assume that the PWM frequency is 16 kHz and that the electrical angular frequency is 160 Hz. Then, for a four-pole motor, 4800 rpm is considered to be the limit of sine-wave PWM drive.

  • How many parts are supplied per tape-and-reel?

    The quantity of devices per reel is 1000, 2000 or other. It differs from device to device. Ask your local Toshiba sales representative.

  • Tell me about the recommended land pattern.

    See the application notes for each device. You can also search for application notes from the Package & Packing Information page.

  • How can I purchase samples and evaluation boards?

    Please contact a distributor or Toshiba’s sales representative.
    You can purchase some of Toshiba’s devices online from Digi Key:
    Digi Key Website
    Evaluation boards are also available from Marutsu:
    Marutsu Website (Japanese)

Stepping Motor

  • How can I calculate current and power consumption?

    Broadly speaking, the power consumption of a motor driver consists of two factors: the power consumed due to the IC bias current and the power consumed due to current flowing through the output section. Both these factors are affected by the drive voltage and the duty cycle.
    For details of how to calculate the power consumption of a motor driver, see the appropriate datasheet or contact us.

  • What are the differences between the absolute maximum ratings and the recommended operating conditions?

    Absolute maximum ratings are limiting values that should not be exceeded even instantaneously. Exposure to conditions beyond these ratings may affect the lifetime and reliability of a device.
    The recommended operating conditions define the conditions for actual device operation and should be observed to ensure that a device operates properly. Correct operation is not guaranteed if any of the recommended operating conditions is exceeded. If there is a possibility that a device will be subjected to a condition beyond any of them, you should review your system design or select another device.

  • Please explain permissible power dissipation.

    The permissible power dissipation of an unmounted IC is rated without any heat sink or any heat dissipation path through a printed circuit board. Without heat dissipation, an application of a large electric current causes an IC to heat up, leading to thermal shutdown (TSD) of the IC. If the IC is left in this condition, its temperature exceeds the absolute maximum temperature, increasing the likelihood that it will be permanently damaged.
    Therefore, consult application notes for each device and create a thermal design that allows sufficient temperature margin so that the junction temperature will not exceed 150°C. In addition, keep in mind that an increase in ambient temperature reduces the permissible power dissipation.

  • What is the definition of “allowable power dissipation”?

    The allowable power dissipation is the maximum power dissipation permitted at up to the rated maximum junction temperature (Tj) of 150℃ when the ambient temperature, Ta, is 25℃. User should calcurate the derated allowable power dissipation because it should be decreased for higher ambient temperature.

  • Is it OK to connect capacitors to the output lines?

    There is a limitation to the maximum capacitance values at the output lines, which varies with conditions and differs from device to device. Contact us and allow for design margins.

  • Are decoupling capacitors required across power and ground lines?

    Decoupling capacitors are required in order to stabilize IC operation by reducing the impedance of power lines and to absorb back-EMF from the motor coil when it is de-energized.

  • Do stepping motor drivers incorporate body diodes to absorb back-EMF?

    Since the output stages of stepping motor drivers consist of MOSFETs, they incorporate body diodes for current regeneration.

  • Is it OK to make deliberate use of the equivalent diode structure between the drain (D) and the source (S)?

    Typically, the DMOS output section has an equivalent parasitic diode structure. Read the handling precautions.

  • MOS devices are typically sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD). How should I protect MOSFETs against ESD?

    Proper ESD protection is implemented in each device.

  • What would happen if static electricity were discharged to the motor driver logic? Isn’t any protection implemented on-chip?

    If static electricity is introduced into a motor driver from a charged object, the on-chip general-purpose CMOS logic may be permanently damaged. Because the gate oxide layer at input gates is only several tens to several hundred angstroms thick, it may be punctured by an electrostatic discharge (ESD) of several hundred to several thousand volts. To protect input gates from ESD, Toshiba's motor drivers have protection circuitry at logic input pins. However, ESD should never be discharged directly into a device; even with protection circuitry, the device might be degraded or damaged.

  • How many parts are supplied per tape-and-reel?

    The quantity of devices per reel is 1000, 2000 or other. It differs from device to device. Ask your local Toshiba sales representative.

  • Tell me about the recommended land pattern.

    See the application notes for each device. You can also search for application notes from the Package & Packing Information page.

  • How can I purchase samples and evaluation boards?

    Please contact a distributor or Toshiba’s sales representative.
    You can purchase some of Toshiba’s devices online from Digi Key:
    Digi Key Website
    Evaluation boards are also available from Marutsu:
    Marutsu Website (Japanese)

LED Drivers

  • What are the differences between the absolute maximum ratings and the recommended operating conditions?

    Absolute maximum ratings are limiting values that should not be exceeded even instantaneously. Exposure to conditions beyond these ratings may affect the lifetime and reliability of a device.

    The operating conditions define the conditions for actual device operation and should be observed to ensure that a device operates properly. Correct operation is not guaranteed if any of the operating conditions is exceeded. If there is a possibility that a device will be subjected to a condition beyond any of them, you should review your system design or select another device.

  • How should the power and input signals be sequenced at power-up and power-down?

    Generally, a device should be powered up in the following sequence to ensure that the absolute maximum ratings will be met: 1) ground, 2) Vcc, 3) input signals. It is recommended to power down a device in the reverse order.

  • Are decoupling capacitors required across power and ground lines?

    Decoupling capacitors are required in order to stabilize IC operation by reducing the impedance of power lines.

  • How can I calculate current and power consumption?

    Broadly speaking, the power consumption of an LED driver consists of two factors: the power consumed due to the IC bias current and the power consumed due to current flowing through the output section. Both these factors are affected by the drive voltage and the duty cycle. For details of how to calculate the power consumption of an LED driver, see the appropriate datasheet or contact us.

  • How many parts are supplied per tape-and-reel?

    The quantity of devices per reel is 2000.

  • What is the definition of “allowable power dissipation”?

    The allowable power dissipation is the maximum power dissipation permitted at up to the rated maximum junction temperature (Tj) of 150℃ when the ambient temperature, Ta, is 25℃. The allowable power dissipation should be derated for ambient temperature because it changes with temperature.

  • How can I program the output current?

    The output current is programmable with a single resistor connected to the REXT pin. See an appropriate datasheet for how to calculate the output current.

  • How many watts does the REXT resistor need to be rated at?

    The REXT pin is a constant-voltage output. The output voltage is somewhere around 1 V, but it differs slightly from device to device. The permissible power of the resistor can be calculated as V2/REXT. 1/8 or 1/16 W will do.

  • I want to connect multiple LED drivers in cascade. Is it okay if the SCK waveform becomes shallow?

    You may want to reduce EMI or circuit noise by slowly changing SCK, but doing so makes it difficult to meet its setup time requirement relative to SIN. If it is not met, data transfer will not be performed properly.
    Be sure to meet the SIN-SCK setup time specified in the Electrical Characteristics table in the datasheet.

  • You have announced that the TB62706BFG and TB62726AFG 16-channel LED drivers will be discontinued. Do you have any replacements for these devices?

    The TC62D748AFG is recommended as a replacement for these LED drivers.

  • You have announced that the TB62705CFG and TB62725BFG 8-channel LED drivers will be discontinued. Do you have any replacements for these devices?

    The TB62777FG is recommended as a replacement for these LED drivers.
    It should be noted, however, that they differ in the output drive current range. For details, see the datasheet or contact us.

·Before creating and producing designs and using, customers must also refer to and comply with the latest versions of all relevant TOSHIBA information and the instructions for the application that Product will be used with or for.