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What kinds of faults could occur if an electrostatic discharge is introduced into a general-purpose CMOS logic IC? How can the faults be prevented?

If an excessive electrostatic discharge is introduced into a general-purpose CMOS logic IC, it could be permanently damaged.
Because the oxide film at the input gate of a general-purpose CMOS logic IC is very thin (hundreds to thousands of angstroms), it could be damaged by an electrostatic discharge of hundreds to thousands of volts.
Toshiba's general-purpose CMOS logic ICs have a protection circuit at the input pins to protect the gate oxide film from an electrostatic discharge. However, in order to protect an IC from damage and deterioration, static electricity should not be discharged directly into an IC.

[Figure: External interface section: Examples of preventive measures against static charge]

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