What kinds of switching-type local power supply ICs (switching regulators) exist?

They are often called DC/DC converters. Both buck and boost types are possible, but circuit structures are different. Loss is small (high efficiency), but external parts, such as a coil, are required. Circuit scale is large and they are expensive. Voltage precision is poor. Because they generate intended DC voltage by switching DC voltage (under 1 MHz) and smoothing it, switching noise is superposed and output noise tends to become large.