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Chapter V : Optical Semiconductors : The wavelength range of LEDs

The LED emits ultraviolet light to infrared light with various wavelengths. This emission wavelength is expressed by the following equation using the energy band gap (Eg) of compound semiconductor material.

λ(nm) = 1240/Eg (eV)

Larger Eg materials emit shorter wavelengths, and materials with smaller Eg emit longer wavelengths.
For infrared LEDs used in television remote controls etc., GaAs (gallium arsenide) is the material used; for red/green indicator LEDs, GaP or InGaAlP is used; and for blue LED, InGaN or GaN is used.

The wavelength range of LEDs
Material Energy Band gap Eg
@300K (eV)
Wavelength(λ) Color
GaAs 1.4 885 nm Infrared
GaP 1.8 to 2.26 549 to 700 nm Green to red
InGaAlP 1.9 to 2.3 539 to 653 nm Green to red
InGaN 2.1 to 3.2 388 to 590 nm Ultraviolet to green
GaN 3.4 365 nm Ultraviolet to blue

Chapter V : Optical Semiconductors

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