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As shown in Fig. 2-6(a), a TVS diode (ESD protection diode) absorbs very high overvoltage in a short time and works so as not to apply excessive voltage to other semiconductor devices. On the other hand, as shown in Fig.2-6(b), a Zener diode clamps input voltage to a constant voltage and supplies clamped voltage to other semiconductor devices.
Thus, a TVS diode absorbs surge voltage to protect other semiconductor devices, whereas a Zener diode provides constant voltage to other semiconductor devices.
Fig. 2-6(a) Usage of TVS diode
Fig. 2-6(b) Usage of Zener diode