Forward current, IF, is calculated as shown below:
IF = IS (exp (qVF/KT) − 1)
IS: Reverse saturation current
T: Absolute temperature
VF: Forward voltage
K: Boltzmann constant
q: Electron charge
The above equation applies only to the small-current region.
The current that flows through a diode when it is reverse-biased is called reverse current (IR) or saturation current (IS).
Generally, silicon diodes exhibit a reverse current, IR, of a few nanoamperes (10−9 A) in the saturated region. IR nearly doubles over a temperature change of 8 to 10°C.