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What kinds of faults could occur if static electricity is discharged into a general-purpose CMOS logic IC? What can I do to prevent faults?

What kinds of faults could occur if static electricity is discharged into a general-purpose CMOS logic IC? What can I do to prevent faults?

General-purpose CMOS logic ICs provide electrostatic discharge (ESD) immunity compliant with international standards. In the event of excessive ESD, CMOS logic ICs might malfunction or be destroyed.
Because the oxide film at the input gate of a general-purpose CMOS logic IC is very thin (hundreds to thousands of angstroms), it could be damaged by an ESD of hundreds to thousands of volts.
To prevent ESD-induced damage, each input pin of Toshiba’s CMOS logic ICs incorporates an ESD protection circuit. However, the internal ESD protection circuit has a limit. Therefore, inputs that might be exposed to excessive ESD (e.g., inputs connected to the external interface of a board) require ESD protection diodes to increase ESD protection capability.

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