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In what structures are IGBTs available?

The common structures of IGBTs include: (a) punch-through (PT), and (b) non-punch-through (NPT), and  (c) thin-wafer punch-through (thin-wafer PT), which is also called field-stop (FS).

(d) Reverse-conducting IGBTs (RC-IGBTs) are a recent addition to IGBT variations in which part of the collector P region of the FS IGBT is replaced by an N region and a freewheeling diode is integrated like a MOSFET. The following table shows generations of IGBTs and their structures.

Structure Generation and Characteristics
PT IGBTs The PT structure has been used since the inception of IGBTs. The P layer on the collector side is thick, and the forward voltage in the low-current region is high.
NPT IGBTs NPT IGBTs appeared, following PT IGBTs. NPN IGBTs have high ruggedness and are used for hard switching and other inverter applications.
Thin-PT IGBTs Thin-PT is one of the latest IGBT structures that uses thin-wafer technology to improve trade-offs between forward voltage drop and switching speed. Because of low loss, thin-PT IGBTs are widely used.
RC-IGBTs RC-IGBTs use the latest thin-wafer technology and incorporate a fast-recovery diode (FRD). RC-IGBTs are available for voltage resonance and other applications.

Structures of IGBTs

(a) PT IGBT

(b) NPT IGBT

(NPT : Non-Punch-Through)

(c) Thin-PT IGBT

(FS-IGBT)

(d) RC-IGBT

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