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Principle of Operation

Cross-sectional structure of an IGBT and the factors that limit its collector-emitter voltage

圖A顯示了常規IGBT的截面結構以及N基極區域中的載流子分佈。從集電極到發射極,載流子濃度在整個N基極區域單調降低。為了增加IGBT的集電極-發射極電壓,在集電極和發射極之間必須有一個深N基極區。但是,深的N基區會導致載流子濃度降低。結果,電阻的增加導致電壓降的增加,從而導致導通電壓的增加。

Characteristics of the IEGT gate structure and the injection enhancement (IE) effect

以下圖B顯示了IEGT的橫截面結構和載流子分佈。 IEGT具有類似於IGBT的結構,具有比IGBT更深,更寬的溝槽柵極。這種結構增加了柵極到發射極的電阻,從而防止載流子穿過發射極。因此,在N基極區域中的發射極附近,載流子濃度提高。由於此現象與載流子注入和累積具有相同的作用,因此稱為注入增強(IE)效應。即使在高集電極-發射極額定電壓下,這種溝槽柵結構也有助於減少電壓降的增加。

Cross-Sectional View of and Carrier Distribution in an IGBT
Figure A Cross-Sectional View of and Carrier Distribution in an IGBT

由於發射極附近的載流子濃度低,因此集電極-發射極電壓額定值的增加導致導通電壓的增加。

Cross-Sectional View of and Carrier Distribution in an IEGT
Figure B Cross-Sectional View of and Carrier Distribution in an IEGT

發射極附近的載流子濃度在發射極附近增強。因此,電子注入增加,從而降低了導通電壓。

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