What is an n-type Semiconductor?
An n-type semiconductor is an intrinsic semiconductor doped with phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), or antimony (Sb) as an impurity. Silicon of Group IV has four valence electrons and phosphorus of Group V has five valence electrons. If a small amount of phosphorus is added to a pure silicon crystal, one of the valence electrons of phosphorus becomes free to move around (free electron*) as a surplus electron. When this free electron is attracted to the “+” electrode and moves, current flows.
* This free electron is the carrier of an n-type semiconductor.